• Personal Resonance© is a research forum engaged in transforming findings from proven research studies on learning, training, performance and expertise into practical training solutions and practices to 'accelerate time-to-expertise' of organizations and professionals. Aggressive time-to-market drives organizations to develop complex cognitive skills of their employees at faster pace to beat their competitors. Goal of forum is to find and share the answer to that ‘speed’. The forum is trying to develop a core knowledge-base in four areas by systematically assimilating, analyzing and synthesizing the proven research studies in wide range of disciplines like cognitive sciences, neuroscience, psychology, education, learning and brain science, etc.: 1) Accelerated Workplace Expertise: Proven research-based strategies and methodologies to accelerate expertise of organization as a whole through training and learning. 2) Accelerated Professional Expertise: Science-based resonance techniques to accelerate expertise, peak performance and effectiveness of individuals. 3) Strategic Training Management: Experience-based competitive philosophies and processes to manage large-scale complex learning and knowledge operations to produce proficient workforce. 4) Competitive Instructional Design: Advanced instructional and learning design techniques to deliver higher order complex skills like problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, technical troubleshooting.

5 Famous Expertise Development Models Explain Novice to Mastery Skill Progression


One of the challenge training and learning designers face is developing curriculum and strategies that are meant to advance the learners to next level of mastery in skills learned. In one of my last posts I compiled different models and theories on skill acquisition. Not all model or theories support ‘mastery’ . Most of theories or models shows the journey only uptil expertise stage. In this post, I will combine stages from the angle of mastery and include only those models which support achievement of ‘mastery’ as a realistic goal. In this post I will go beyond Dreyfus and Dreyfus’s famous model and add some later research studies and contemporary models by some consultants and industry thought leaders. 5 Skill Development Models Explaining Progression Towards Mastery Here is how different models and thought leaders explains progression of a novice towards acquiring mastery in stages. Dreyfus & Dreyfus (1986, 2001, 2008) … Continue reading

Have you been following my blog posts on strategies for speed-to-proficiency?

Personal-Resonance-Logo5 (300px)

Inviting my followers to connect or subscribe to my original blog Personal Resonance©: Accelerating Time-to-Expertise http://www.personal-resonance.com Through this post I would like to invite all my followers and appreciators at FlipBoard, Facebook, Pinterest, Tribber, Twitter, Bloglovin, Quora, LinkedIn, WordPress, Tumblr and other social media sites who like or follow my blog posts. If you like my blog posts on niche area of “accelerating” personal, professional and organizational expertise, then feel free to connect with me and subscribe my original blog link at http://www.personal-resonance.com. You can subscribe through ’email subscription’ box on the right. In this blog, I am in a process of making a central knowledge base of proven training and learning techniques from various research studies to ‘accelerate time-to-expertise’ of self, others and of your organizations. Subscribe and share this effort with others to find the answer to challenge of ‘speed to proficiency‘. Share this invitation to someone you think can benefit from this. My blog is structured … Continue reading

Developing Skill Acquisition Training Based on Unconscious Competence Theory

Reflective competence

How an individual acquire competence or expertise kept me fascinated for years. While developing my doctorate literature review, I started out with some research on models of expertise / competence development.  Though most of the body of knowledge out there is focused on stages of development as opposed to techniques of development, I thought it may make sense to talk about the oldest and most commonly used model of stages of competence development which training and non training professionals both can relate to. When I was a kid I got my new bicycle. Not waiting for next day I started riding it hardly worrying about whether or not I knew how to ride. Not knowing when to paddle and when to steer I fell a couple of time. Those were enough to tell me that I didn’t know how to ride it. As I took help and coaching for others … Continue reading

12 Models of Skill Acquisition and Development: From a Novice to Expertise and Mastery

rapid skill acquisiiton

One of the challenge training and learning designers face is developing curriculum and strategies that are meant to advance the learners to next level of mastery in skills learned. There are a number of theories which attempt to explain how learners move from novice to expert. In this post I will summarize the most popular and most relevant models on novice-to-expert development for training and learning designers. A journey of learner, especially a novice towards becoming an expert and master is a fascinating topic and training professionals love to create their own unconfirmed theories on such a topic. This discussion always becomes interesting but ironically never gets good consensus in regards to definitions of, and even names of different stages through which a novice develops into an expert. Though there are arguments against existence of clear-cut stages, few studies confirmed that there is occurrence of level-like shift in some qualitative … Continue reading

6 Phases of Skill Acquisition in Towards Mastery: Combining Multiple Views of Dreyfus Model

Stages of skill acquisition

During my Doctorate research first thing I was looking for a scale or phases of acquisition of skills. One of the most recognized works in specifying stages of expertise was proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986). However, I came across so many different variations of the model that I thought I will compile a table. This post is an attempt to combine various perspectives into one. I view progression in skill acquisition as “phases” rather than “stages”. At this moment I will stick to word ‘stage’. as My intent here is not to critique Dreyfus’s model but to integrate summaries from various leading authors and bloggers (at least those I think were doing good job in simplifying the model and making it more useful). Dreyfus & Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition The Dreyfus model is based on the basic notion that acquisition of skill is a continuous process and skill … Continue reading

Why ‘Accelerating Time-to-Proficiency’ metrics are important in today’s business world?

Concept of Accelerating Time-to-Proficiency

What is this Time-to-Proficiency metrics anyway? Over the last decade every one of us has seen tremendous changes in technology and learning across the industries. In hi-tech industry, organizations are trying to squeeze (or accelerate) time-to-market of new technologies, services, products and solutions to gain competitive edge over others. Talking to several thought leaders in the industry, it appears to me that there is a large lag between speed with which organizations can build capability of employees and the speed of time-to-market of products, services, solutions, technologies. This business challenge of squeezed time-to-market has led to a new business challenge for training experts how to drive workforce to achieve full productivity at equally fast pace. Also lately, most of the organizations are targeting proficiency as the minimum desired level of performance of their employees. In general the time taken by an individual to acquire the skills necessary to reach to … Continue reading

5 E-learning Strategies to Accelerate Time-to-Proficiency in Complex Cognitive Skills

E-learning Strategies to Accelerate Time-to-Proficiency in Complex Skills

There is no consensus on what e-learning is and what it is not. e-learning definition changes with endless possibilities every new electronic technology bring for driving learning  (Kahiigi et al., 2008). Long back computer based training was deemed as e-learning while in most recent time virtual reality is considered to be new face of e-learning No doubt that e-learning has emerged as one of the most attractive and cost effective solution with flexibility to support self-paced learning which can be delivered geographically to any place on the earth. 2014 survey by Elearningindustry.com reported that over 47% of the Fortune 500 companies now use some form of education technology and corporations value e-learning as the second most valuable training method which saves business at least 50% cost when they replace traditional classroom training with e-learning (Pappas, 2013). According to ASTD 2014 State of the Industry Report, 38% of the training is … Continue reading

9 Guidelines to Apply 70:20:10 Framework to Accelerate Time-to-Competence (Part-2)

70 20 10 -model for performance improvement

In this part-2 of the blog post, I will share remaining 5 of the 9 guidelines shared by Dr. Charles Jennings, a learning thought leader and advocate of 70:20:10 framework. He emphasizes that this framework, if  applied strategically, can enable organizations to compress time-to-competence. Click here to read the Part-1 for first 4 guidelines. http://www.personal-resonance.com/leveraging-702010-framework-accelerate-time-to-competence-thoughts-charles-jennings-part-1/ Guidelines 5 to 9 5. Design opportunities for reflection “From a practical point of view, making sure that structured training is experiential and contains designed opportunities to reflect the situations that people are going to encounter in the workplace. It certainly accelerates performance. The opportunities of reflection has to be built into day-to-day work after the training as well.”  6. Use the checklists to avoid unnecessary informational training “I think that the humble checklist is really underrated. I often feel that we can spend days training people, and actually we could give them three or four … Continue reading

9 Guidelines to Apply 70:20:10 Framework to Accelerate Time-to-Competence (Part-1)

70:20:10 Framework

70:20:10 framework has seen its induction in several organizations. I got a chance to have conversation with Dr. Charles Jennings in regards to potential this model hold to accelerate employee workplace learning and performance. Click here to read more about 70:20:10 framework. http://charles-jennings.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/702010-framework-for-high-performance.html. In this 2 part blog, I will share 9 guidelines Dr. Charles shared which applied strategically can enable organizations to compress time-to-competence.  Charles Jennings is one of the world’s leading experts on building and implementing 70:20:10 learning strategies. 70:20:10 is based on observations that high performing individuals and organizations build most of their capability by learning within the workflow. Also called the ‘3Es approach’ – Experience: Exposure: Education. He has consulted on, and led, learning and performance improvement projects for multinational corporations and government agencies for more than 30 years. What’s wrong with today’s training? “The traditional training model really emerged to meet industrial requirements – requirements … Continue reading

Cognitive Training Techniques to Build and Accelerate Expertise: Interview with Dr. Ruth C. Clark

Training Techniques to Accelerate and Build Expertise

A while ago I had conversation with Dr. Ruth Clark exploring her views about certain training strategies to building expertise in problem solving skills and potentially accelerate it. She emphasized using worked examples and Scenario-based e-Learning training techniques as key to build expertise. Here is an excerpt from the conversation. About Dr. Ruth Clark: A recognized specialist in instructional design and technical training, Dr. Clark is author of Scenario-based E-Learning and newly released second edition of Evidence-based Training, two books that deal with evidence-based instructional strategies to accelerate expertise. She is also author of Building Expertise, a book with thorough account of research based cognitive training strategies to improve performance. For over 25 years Ruth Clark has helped workforce learning practitioners apply evidence-based practice guidelines based on valid research. Dr. Clark offers consulting by previewing your e-learning products or goals and evaluating your courses or offering customized design-development consultation. Ruth currently offers … Continue reading

Problem Based Learning (PBL): Applied to Accelerate Complex Problem Solving Skills

Problem Based Learning in Complex Problem Solving1

This post is continution of my earlier post titled: Problem Centered Training Methods Applied to Complex Problem Solving Skills. Nature of Complex Problem Solving Take moment to go back to my earlier Expertise in Complexity which differentiate between general problem solving and complex problem solving: According to Brehmer (1995), “Complex problem solving is concerned with people’s ability to handle tasks that are complex, dynamic (in the sense that they change both autonomously) and as a consequence of the decision makers actions), and opaque (in the sense that the decision maker may not be able to directly see the tasks states or structure).” On the other hand, General Problem solving refers to a state of desire for reaching a definite ‘goal’ from a present condition that either is not directly moving toward the goal, is far from it, or needs more complex logic for finding a missing description of conditions or steps toward the goal (Robertson, … Continue reading

3 Problem Centered Training Methods in Complex Problem Solving Skills

problem centered training methods

When it comes to designing and teaching problem solving skill based training programs, Hung (2009) quoted on how current training strategies are not working, “Traditional pedagogies, such as lecturing and demonstrating solutions to problems, very often result in students being capable of solving “textbook problems,” but unable to apply the knowledge to solve real life problems” (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Mayer, 1996; Perkins & Salomon, 1989). I wrote a previous post on 2 Core Philosophies to design Complex Problem Solving and Troubleshooting Training. I briefly touched upon 3 popular philosophies and 5 major methods (Problem based learning, Project Based Learning, Scenario Based Learning, Case Based Method and Simulation Based Learning) to design general problem solving, which may have application in complex problem solving training design as well. Collectively let’s call these 5 methods as Problem Centered Training Methods. Problem Centered Training Methods a) Inquiry Based learning In inquiry based learning, learning start … Continue reading

9 Training Models to Accelerate to High Proficiency by Uplifting Bars in Formal Training

How Re-structured Training Interventions can accelerate the time to proficiency?

A while ago I presented the paper on “Rethinking Professional Skill Development: Accelerating Time-to-Expertise of Employees” at Conference for Human Development in Asia, Japan. In that paper, I presented the three potential approaches through which most organizations are trying to accelerate proficiency acquisition of their employees. 3 Approaches from Research How Organizations Build and Accelerate Expertise  1) Accelerating Acquisition of Expertise by Accelerating OJT I presented the first approach of “Accelerating Acquisition of Expertise by Accelerating OJT” in my previous blog post “Designing and Accelerating On-the-Job Training (OJT) in Organizational Settings“. In that post I made some points that there has to be some methods to increase the slope of post-training OJT curve which can potentially help organizations to attain desired proficiency in their employees in shorter time. However, I do not know any proven training methods to re-design accelerated post-training OJT curve. I am in search of those methods … Continue reading

9 Famous Training Models Supporting Development and Speed up of Expertise

Acquiring High Proficiency and Expertise Through Training

Several researchers established the possibility to produce professionals at higher level of proficiency using some special training strategies. But that’s stay as possibility to large extent. There is lack of any comprehensive mechanism of accelerating the proficiency either through training or otherwise which instructional designer,s training strategists or training experts could use off-the-shelf and apply in organizational context. As stated by Hoffman, Andrews & Feltovich (2012), “Empirical fact about expertise (i.e., that it takes a long time) sets the stage for an effort at demonstrating the acceleration of the achievement of proficiency.” (p. 9). Some famous models do attempt to provide “some” insight into how training can be used to build certain level of proficiency of employees and to accelerate it. I thought I summarize various models from the angle of how expertise development and acceleration of expertise. Bloom’s Mastery Learning Model (1968) The educational theorist Carroll (1963) provided the first complete … Continue reading

4-Tier Model to Measure Value and ROI of Complex Training

Training Evaluation Measurement

I wrote two articles on measuring the effectiveness / impact / ROI of training years back while I was managing training from that angle. Since then I have received quite many requests to elaborate the approach a bit more. I think it makes sense. We are simple job-oriented training managers. We need a ‘common-sense’ measurement – a simple feasible way to measure the effectiveness of the training. Kirkpatrick’s Training evaluation model and Phillips’ ROI models are good but being operational managers we need information in more tactical fashion. I thought of putting my thoughts in this article. In complex training dynamics and factors impacting the outcome may be hard to isolate as the sole effect of training per se. In this post I will share 4-tier workable model of measuring training effectiveness of complex training operations with the focus on briefly how to implement or use it. Basic Philosophy The basic … Continue reading

40 Books on Designing Complex Troubleshooting and Problem Solving Training Program

40 Books You will find useful in designing complex problem solving skill training

In varied business situation whether it is job requiring an engineer to fix the customer’s under-performing equipment or a service not performing to customer expectations or business losses due to a faulty process, organizations expect from their employees to exhibit top-notch problem solving and troubleshooting abilities. The troubleshooting abilities encompass a range of cognitive, metacognitive and higher-order skills. Some of these “constituent skills” are effective problem solving skills, higher order critical thinking, deep analytical skills, ability to evaluate the options and exert the judgment of high order, quick situational and conditional decision making in different situations at different times, sound cognitive and thinking  skills  and most importantly  metacognitive abilities to change strategies in different situations. Troubleshooting is highly non-linear process which varies in different situations.  The rate at which an employee acquire this high-order thinking, cognitive and metacognitive skills is function of many factors like exposure to number of real-life … Continue reading

2 Core Training Phillosphies to Accelerate Expertise in Complex Problem Solving and Troubleshooting Skills

Complex Troubleshooting and Problem Solving in Aircrafts

  In the last post Expertise in Complexity: A Case for Complex Problem Solving and Troubleshooting Skills, I pitched that there is surmounting challenge when it comes to building proficiency in complex jobs involving complex tasks, complex decisions and complex problem solving through training courses. Not only it requires trainers to deliver knowledge, skills and competencies required to solve real-world problems, but also at the same time needs to develop learners with strategies appropriate for that domain. Historically, most of the traditional training models assumed solving all problems in same way. The recent theories have established that different context and different domains requires different approach to solve the problem. Thus solving same problem in two different situations or disciplines may altogether be different (Mayer, 1992; Sternberg & Frensch, 1991). According to Sheckley and Keeton (1999), individuals develop proficiency by working in challenging and supportive environments, self-monitoring, engaging in deliberate practice, and … Continue reading

What does it take to develop Expertise in Complex Problem Solving Skills?

Developing Expertise for Complex Problem Solving

In this post I would like to address a very different challenge for training experts – domain of building / accelerating expertise from research in the area of complex problem solving skills. Sometimes back I wrote a paper on this and I am re-purposing some of the contents here in organizational context. In today’s environment, employees are expected to possess proficiency in top order problem solving and troubleshooting skills. General strategies for developing expertise in other context are seen to be not working effectively in such jobs. Developing expertise of individuals and developing it faster is extremely challenging task. Let me break challenges in developing troubleshooting expertise in employees step-by-step. What makes Jobs Complex? Global jobs, especially the technical ones are become complex day by day. Complex jobs are the jobs that are characterized by the complexity of the decision making, complexity of problems, complexity of problem solving, complexity and … Continue reading

Does return on On-the-Job Training (OJT) outweigh the costs in Building Expertise?

On-the-Job Training to Build Expertise

I wrote in my other post on how there is need to find strategies to accelerate the OJT. Designing and Accelerating On-the-Job Training (OJT) in Organizational Settings. I will address the strategies to accelerating building expertise through OJT in subsequent posts. Here I will explore some aspects of OJT whether it is a cost or it is tool for return on investment on training. Let’s start from the beginning. Need for OJT at Workplace Typically a novice’s journey to acquiring proficiency starts with some sort of formal and hopefully systematic training event to learn the skills needed at the job. The training helps the novice to acquire the skills and reach to certain level of skill proficiency at the time of exit from the training course. Traditionally training prepares a novice only to reach to a level called “advanced beginner” as defined by Dreyfus’s model (Clark, 2008). What a novice … Continue reading

Designing and Accelerating On-the-Job Training (OJT) in Organizational Settings

Accelerating OJT

Systematic-OJT (Jacobs, 2003) is one of the popular methods to build experience and proficiency of novice in any profession. NOTE: For this blog, read Post-Training OJT (on-the-job training) to mean as Post-Training On-the-Job Experience  (OJE) which an individual typically gets on the job either through structured or unstructured assignments while doing his job.  Why OJT? Let’s start from the beginning. Typically a novice’s journey to acquire proficiency starts with some sort of formal and hopefully systematic training event to learn the skills needed at his job. The training helps the novice to acquire the skills and reach to certain level of skill proficiency at the time of exit from the training event. Traditionally training prepares a novice only to reach to a level called “advanced beginner” as defined by Dreyfus’s model (Clark, 2008). What a novice lacks at the end of the formal training program is necessary experience and time … Continue reading