• Personal Resonance© is a research forum engaged in transforming findings from proven research studies on learning, training, performance and expertise into practical training solutions and practices to 'accelerate time-to-expertise' of organizations and professionals. Aggressive time-to-market drives organizations to develop complex cognitive skills of their employees at faster pace to beat their competitors. Goal of forum is to find and share the answer to that ‘speed’. The forum is trying to develop a core knowledge-base in four areas by systematically assimilating, analyzing and synthesizing the proven research studies in wide range of disciplines like cognitive sciences, neuroscience, psychology, education, learning and brain science, etc.: 1) Accelerated Workplace Expertise: Proven research-based strategies and methodologies to accelerate expertise of organization as a whole through training and learning. 2) Accelerated Professional Expertise: Science-based resonance techniques to accelerate expertise, peak performance and effectiveness of individuals. 3) Strategic Training Management: Experience-based competitive philosophies and processes to manage large-scale complex learning and knowledge operations to produce proficient workforce. 4) Competitive Instructional Design: Advanced instructional and learning design techniques to deliver higher order complex skills like problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, technical troubleshooting.

Designing and Accelerating On-the-Job Training (OJT) in Organizational Settings

Accelerating OJT

Systematic-OJT (Jacobs, 2003) is one of the popular methods to build experience and proficiency of novice in any profession. NOTE: For this blog, read Post-Training OJT (on-the-job training) to mean as Post-Training On-the-Job Experience  (OJE) which an individual typically gets on the job either through structured or unstructured assignments while doing his job.  Why OJT? Let’s start from the beginning. Typically a novice’s journey to acquire proficiency starts with some sort of formal and hopefully systematic training event to learn the skills needed at his job. The training helps the novice to acquire the skills and reach to certain level of skill proficiency at the time of exit from the training event. Traditionally training prepares a novice only to reach to a level called “advanced beginner” as defined by Dreyfus’s model (Clark, 2008). What a novice lacks at the end of the formal training program is necessary experience and time … Continue reading

Proficiency Based Training Approach in Organizational Settings: Does it work?

Proficiency Based Training

Proficiency Based Training approach, made popular mainly by military and some schools in US, suggests that if a novice could be provided all the opportunities right within training event, time not being a factor, learning at certain rate controlled by training events, environment and exposure, he is likely to reach ‘desired proficiency’ someday. What is Proficiency Based Training? The whole idea is to make trainees achieve proficiency right during training event and removing the limit to the time. The educational theorist Carroll (1963) provided the first complete model of attaining proficiency in her “Mastery learning model”. Carroll challenged traditional educational philosophy with his model stating that ‘the learner will succeed in learning a given task to the extent that he spends the time that he needs to learn the task’ (p. 725). Carroll used certain factors like aptitude, or time needed to learn the task under ideal instruction, ability to understand instruction, … Continue reading

6 Practical Training Strategies from Sternberg’s Developing Expertise Model

s Model

Among several models for training design, the “Developing Expertise” Model by Sternberg (1999) is quite useful to define the training strategies. The main feature of this model is that it postulated that ‘expertise’ is trainable – however, required correct orchestration of the training strategies He presented a model of developing expertise have five key elements: Metacognitive skills, Learning skills, Thinking skills, Knowledge and Motivation. Fundamentally his model is based on cycling and interactions of several skills together to achieve expertise. Core philosophy is that Motivation is believed to drive metacognitive skills which in turn activate learning and thinking skills, which then provide feedback to the metacognitive skills, enabling one’s level of expertise to increase (Sternberg, 1985). The declarative and procedural knowledge acquired through the thinking skills and learning skills also contribute toward acquisition of expertise. Sternberg’s Model of Proficiency Acquisition Sternberg explains following contributing elements: 1) Metacognitive skills. Metacognitive skills … Continue reading

Making of An Expert: 9 Universal Abilities that Represent Expertise

9 universal abilities that represent expertise

Taking about expertise and accelerating time-to-expertise, question comes is what are the characteristics of an expert performer. I thought of providing researcher’s view on experts and what makes the expertise. Expertise typically has been viewed in terms of expert performance which means expertise in some abilities which are possessed by some and not all (Dror et al., 1993). These abilities may contain range of skills, knowledge and performance characteristics and it may vary from one domain to another.  Ericsson (1994) defines expert level performance as “Usually, if someone is performing at least two standard deviations above the mean level in the population, that individual can be said to be performing at an expert level.” Ericsson & Lehman (1996) further elaborated expertise or expert performance as consistently superior performance in tasks pertaining to the field of expertise. Klein (1998) describes that expert performance comes by virtue of expert’s ability to integrate … Continue reading

New Measure of Training ROI: Time-to-Expertise and Time-to-Proficiency of Employees

accelerating TTP chart

  I wrote in previous post that most of the organizations are targeting proficiency as the minimum desired level of performance of their employees. In general the time taken by an individual to acquire the skills necessary to reach to a level where his performance can be deemed as “proficient” (or exhibiting ‘desired proficiency’) is called time-to-proficiency (Pinder and Schroeder, 1987). This is generally measured either from his day of hire or from the day he takes first training course. This time usually also involves time spent on OJT and other allied activities to gain proficiency. Carpenter, Monaco, O’Mara, & Teachout (1989) appears to be first one to develop first Time-To-Proficiency model in military context which established relationship between actual performance, aptitude, experience, costs and minimum acceptable level of job proficiency for recording airmen proficiency (as cited by Faneuff et.al, 1990). It took time for the same concept to make … Continue reading

How Competency and Proficiency are Related to Performance?


When it comes to training design and delivery, I have seen that professionals tend to use several terms interchangeably: Competence, Competency, Proficiency, Expertise and Performance. Even though these terms have different definition and scope, these are used quite interchangeably in the literature. Murphy et al. (2009) highlighted the problem of a lack of consistency in defining competence and performance. I thought in this post I add my perspective on clarifying based on some research and provide a simple relationship between these terms. a) Performance Performance is a widely used term in human resource world. The Oxford English Dictionary defines performance as ‘the action or process of performing a task or a function’. Gilbert (1996) states that there are two elements in performance: the behavior or activity and the outcome or accomplishment (as cited in National Volunteer Skill Centre, 2003, p. 6). Performance may be result of several cognitive, psychomotor tasks … Continue reading

3 Challenges in Designing Training When “Proficiency” is Your Organization’s Training Goal

Stages of Skill Acquisition

I came across this question many times: What should be the goal of organizational or corporate training? Should it target generating competence or should it go beyond competence in producing proficiency or expertise? The approaches and training strategies vary with the goals. If we look at Dreyfus’s model of Skill Acquisition (Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 1986) we have competence on one side of the scale, we have expertise on other side and proficiency level falls mid-way. Ericsson (1994) advocate that to attain expertise, roughly 10000 hours of deliberate practice. This equation has been questioned recently by several practitioners, but lets not go into that debate. Nevertheless it is understood that gaining expertise requires much longer time. Experts are characterized by highly improved mental knowledge representation, ability of chunking, efficient cognitive processing schemata and ability to recognize patterns quickly. These abilities are acquired over the time with extensive experience. Achieving expertise as … Continue reading

Accelerating Time-to-Expertise in the Accelerated Time-to-Market

Let me share a new perspective on language of ROI for the training. Over the last decade every one of us has seen tremendous changes in technology and learning across the industries. If you are in hi-tech industry, you might agree with me that organizations are trying to squeeze (or accelerate) Time-to-market of new technologies, services, products and solutions to gain competitive edge over others. This does not come without a critical business challenge. This has led to a new business challenge for training experts how to drive workforce to achieve full productivity at equally fast pace. Talking to several thought leaders in the industry; it appears to me that there is a large lag between speed with which organizations can build capability of employees and the speed of time-to-market of products / services / solutions / technologies. Hi-tech industry is at critical point with dire need to build capabilities … Continue reading