• Personal Resonance© is a research forum engaged in transforming findings from proven research studies on learning, training, performance and expertise into practical training solutions and practices to 'accelerate time-to-expertise' of organizations and professionals. Aggressive time-to-market drives organizations to develop complex cognitive skills of their employees at faster pace to beat their competitors. Goal of forum is to find and share the answer to that ‘speed’. The forum is trying to develop a core knowledge-base in four areas by systematically assimilating, analyzing and synthesizing the proven research studies in wide range of disciplines like cognitive sciences, neuroscience, psychology, education, learning and brain science, etc.: 1) Accelerated Workplace Expertise: Proven research-based strategies and methodologies to accelerate expertise of organization as a whole through training and learning. 2) Accelerated Professional Expertise: Science-based resonance techniques to accelerate expertise, peak performance and effectiveness of individuals. 3) Strategic Training Management: Experience-based competitive philosophies and processes to manage large-scale complex learning and knowledge operations to produce proficient workforce. 4) Competitive Instructional Design: Advanced instructional and learning design techniques to deliver higher order complex skills like problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, technical troubleshooting.

Problem Based Learning (PBL): Applied to Accelerate Complex Problem Solving Skills

Problem Based Learning in Complex Problem Solving1

This post is continution of my earlier post titled: Problem Centered Training Methods Applied to Complex Problem Solving Skills. Nature of Complex Problem Solving Take moment to go back to my earlier Expertise in Complexity which differentiate between general problem solving and complex problem solving: According to Brehmer (1995), “Complex problem solving is concerned with people’s ability to handle tasks that are complex, dynamic (in the sense that they change both autonomously) and as a consequence of the decision makers actions), and opaque (in the sense that the decision maker may not be able to directly see the tasks states or structure).” On the other hand, General Problem solving refers to a state of desire for reaching a definite ‘goal’ from a present condition that either is not directly moving toward the goal, is far from it, or needs more complex logic for finding a missing description of conditions or steps toward the goal (Robertson, … Continue reading

3 Problem Centered Training Methods in Complex Problem Solving Skills

problem centered training methods

When it comes to designing and teaching problem solving skill based training programs, Hung (2009) quoted on how current training strategies are not working, “Traditional pedagogies, such as lecturing and demonstrating solutions to problems, very often result in students being capable of solving “textbook problems,” but unable to apply the knowledge to solve real life problems” (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Mayer, 1996; Perkins & Salomon, 1989). I wrote a previous post on 2 Core Philosophies to design Complex Problem Solving and Troubleshooting Training. I briefly touched upon 3 popular philosophies and 5 major methods (Problem based learning, Project Based Learning, Scenario Based Learning, Case Based Method and Simulation Based Learning) to design general problem solving, which may have application in complex problem solving training design as well. Collectively let’s call these 5 methods as Problem Centered Training Methods. Problem Centered Training Methods a) Inquiry Based learning In inquiry based learning, learning start … Continue reading

9 Training Models to Accelerate to High Proficiency by Uplifting Bars in Formal Training

How Re-structured Training Interventions can accelerate the time to proficiency?

A while ago I presented the paper on “Rethinking Professional Skill Development: Accelerating Time-to-Expertise of Employees” at Conference for Human Development in Asia, Japan. In that paper, I presented the three potential approaches through which most organizations are trying to accelerate proficiency acquisition of their employees. 3 Approaches from Research How Organizations Build and Accelerate Expertise  1) Accelerating Acquisition of Expertise by Accelerating OJT I presented the first approach of “Accelerating Acquisition of Expertise by Accelerating OJT” in my previous blog post “Designing and Accelerating On-the-Job Training (OJT) in Organizational Settings“. In that post I made some points that there has to be some methods to increase the slope of post-training OJT curve which can potentially help organizations to attain desired proficiency in their employees in shorter time. However, I do not know any proven training methods to re-design accelerated post-training OJT curve. I am in search of those methods … Continue reading

9 Famous Training Models Supporting Development and Speed up of Expertise

Acquiring High Proficiency and Expertise Through Training

Several researchers established the possibility to produce professionals at higher level of proficiency using some special training strategies. But that’s stay as possibility to large extent. There is lack of any comprehensive mechanism of accelerating the proficiency either through training or otherwise which instructional designer,s training strategists or training experts could use off-the-shelf and apply in organizational context. As stated by Hoffman, Andrews & Feltovich (2012), “Empirical fact about expertise (i.e., that it takes a long time) sets the stage for an effort at demonstrating the acceleration of the achievement of proficiency.” (p. 9). Some famous models do attempt to provide “some” insight into how training can be used to build certain level of proficiency of employees and to accelerate it. I thought I summarize various models from the angle of how expertise development and acceleration of expertise. Bloom’s Mastery Learning Model (1968) The educational theorist Carroll (1963) provided the first complete … Continue reading

4-Tier Model to Measure Value and ROI of Complex Training

Training Evaluation Measurement

I wrote two articles on measuring the effectiveness / impact / ROI of training years back while I was managing training from that angle. Since then I have received quite many requests to elaborate the approach a bit more. I think it makes sense. We are simple job-oriented training managers. We need a ‘common-sense’ measurement – a simple feasible way to measure the effectiveness of the training. Kirkpatrick’s Training evaluation model and Phillips’ ROI models are good but being operational managers we need information in more tactical fashion. I thought of putting my thoughts in this article. In complex training dynamics and factors impacting the outcome may be hard to isolate as the sole effect of training per se. In this post I will share 4-tier workable model of measuring training effectiveness of complex training operations with the focus on briefly how to implement or use it. Basic Philosophy The basic … Continue reading

40 Books on Designing Complex Troubleshooting and Problem Solving Training Program

40 Books You will find useful in designing complex problem solving skill training

In varied business situation whether it is job requiring an engineer to fix the customer’s under-performing equipment or a service not performing to customer expectations or business losses due to a faulty process, organizations expect from their employees to exhibit top-notch problem solving and troubleshooting abilities. The troubleshooting abilities encompass a range of cognitive, metacognitive and higher-order skills. Some of these “constituent skills” are effective problem solving skills, higher order critical thinking, deep analytical skills, ability to evaluate the options and exert the judgment of high order, quick situational and conditional decision making in different situations at different times, sound cognitive and thinking  skills  and most importantly  metacognitive abilities to change strategies in different situations. Troubleshooting is highly non-linear process which varies in different situations.  The rate at which an employee acquire this high-order thinking, cognitive and metacognitive skills is function of many factors like exposure to number of real-life … Continue reading

2 Core Training Phillosphies to Accelerate Expertise in Complex Problem Solving and Troubleshooting Skills

Complex Troubleshooting and Problem Solving in Aircrafts

  In the last post Expertise in Complexity: A Case for Complex Problem Solving and Troubleshooting Skills, I pitched that there is surmounting challenge when it comes to building proficiency in complex jobs involving complex tasks, complex decisions and complex problem solving through training courses. Not only it requires trainers to deliver knowledge, skills and competencies required to solve real-world problems, but also at the same time needs to develop learners with strategies appropriate for that domain. Historically, most of the traditional training models assumed solving all problems in same way. The recent theories have established that different context and different domains requires different approach to solve the problem. Thus solving same problem in two different situations or disciplines may altogether be different (Mayer, 1992; Sternberg & Frensch, 1991). According to Sheckley and Keeton (1999), individuals develop proficiency by working in challenging and supportive environments, self-monitoring, engaging in deliberate practice, and … Continue reading

What does it take to develop Expertise in Complex Problem Solving Skills?

Developing Expertise for Complex Problem Solving

In this post I would like to address a very different challenge for training experts – domain of building / accelerating expertise from research in the area of complex problem solving skills. Sometimes back I wrote a paper on this and I am re-purposing some of the contents here in organizational context. In today’s environment, employees are expected to possess proficiency in top order problem solving and troubleshooting skills. General strategies for developing expertise in other context are seen to be not working effectively in such jobs. Developing expertise of individuals and developing it faster is extremely challenging task. Let me break challenges in developing troubleshooting expertise in employees step-by-step. What makes Jobs Complex? Global jobs, especially the technical ones are become complex day by day. Complex jobs are the jobs that are characterized by the complexity of the decision making, complexity of problems, complexity of problem solving, complexity and … Continue reading

Does return on On-the-Job Training (OJT) outweigh the costs in Building Expertise?

On-the-Job Training to Build Expertise

I wrote in my other post on how there is need to find strategies to accelerate the OJT. Designing and Accelerating On-the-Job Training (OJT) in Organizational Settings. I will address the strategies to accelerating building expertise through OJT in subsequent posts. Here I will explore some aspects of OJT whether it is a cost or it is tool for return on investment on training. Let’s start from the beginning. Need for OJT at Workplace Typically a novice’s journey to acquiring proficiency starts with some sort of formal and hopefully systematic training event to learn the skills needed at the job. The training helps the novice to acquire the skills and reach to certain level of skill proficiency at the time of exit from the training course. Traditionally training prepares a novice only to reach to a level called “advanced beginner” as defined by Dreyfus’s model (Clark, 2008). What a novice … Continue reading