• Personal Resonance© is a research forum engaged in transforming findings from proven research studies on learning, training, performance and expertise into practical training solutions and practices to 'accelerate time-to-expertise' of organizations and professionals. Aggressive time-to-market drives organizations to develop complex cognitive skills of their employees at faster pace to beat their competitors. Goal of forum is to find and share the answer to that ‘speed’. The forum is trying to develop a core knowledge-base in four areas by systematically assimilating, analyzing and synthesizing the proven research studies in wide range of disciplines like cognitive sciences, neuroscience, psychology, education, learning and brain science, etc.: 1) Accelerated Workplace Expertise: Proven research-based strategies and methodologies to accelerate expertise of organization as a whole through training and learning. 2) Accelerated Professional Expertise: Science-based resonance techniques to accelerate expertise, peak performance and effectiveness of individuals. 3) Strategic Training Management: Experience-based competitive philosophies and processes to manage large-scale complex learning and knowledge operations to produce proficient workforce. 4) Competitive Instructional Design: Advanced instructional and learning design techniques to deliver higher order complex skills like problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, technical troubleshooting.

5 Famous Expertise Development Models Explain Novice to Mastery Skill Progression

personal-mastery

One of the challenge training and learning designers face is developing curriculum and strategies that are meant to advance the learners to next level of mastery in skills learned. In one of my last posts I compiled different models and theories on skill acquisition. Not all model or theories support ‘mastery’ . Most of theories or models shows the journey only uptil expertise stage. In this post, I will combine stages from the angle of mastery and include only those models which support achievement of ‘mastery’ as a realistic goal. In this post I will go beyond Dreyfus and Dreyfus’s famous model and add some later research studies and contemporary models by some consultants and industry thought leaders. 5 Skill Development Models Explaining Progression Towards Mastery Here is how different models and thought leaders explains progression of a novice towards acquiring mastery in stages. Dreyfus & Dreyfus (1986, 2001, 2008) … Continue reading

Have you been following my blog posts on strategies for speed-to-proficiency?

Personal-Resonance-Logo5 (300px)

Inviting my followers to connect or subscribe to my original blog Personal Resonance©: Accelerating Time-to-Expertise http://www.personal-resonance.com Through this post I would like to invite all my followers and appreciators at FlipBoard, Facebook, Pinterest, Tribber, Twitter, Bloglovin, Quora, LinkedIn, WordPress, Tumblr and other social media sites who like or follow my blog posts. If you like my blog posts on niche area of “accelerating” personal, professional and organizational expertise, then feel free to connect with me and subscribe my original blog link at http://www.personal-resonance.com. You can subscribe through ’email subscription’ box on the right. In this blog, I am in a process of making a central knowledge base of proven training and learning techniques from various research studies to ‘accelerate time-to-expertise’ of self, others and of your organizations. Subscribe and share this effort with others to find the answer to challenge of ‘speed to proficiency‘. Share this invitation to someone you think can benefit from this. My blog is structured … Continue reading

Developing Skill Acquisition Training Based on Unconscious Competence Theory

Reflective competence

How an individual acquire competence or expertise kept me fascinated for years. While developing my doctorate literature review, I started out with some research on models of expertise / competence development.  Though most of the body of knowledge out there is focused on stages of development as opposed to techniques of development, I thought it may make sense to talk about the oldest and most commonly used model of stages of competence development which training and non training professionals both can relate to. When I was a kid I got my new bicycle. Not waiting for next day I started riding it hardly worrying about whether or not I knew how to ride. Not knowing when to paddle and when to steer I fell a couple of time. Those were enough to tell me that I didn’t know how to ride it. As I took help and coaching for others … Continue reading

12 Models of Skill Acquisition and Development: From a Novice to Expertise and Mastery

rapid skill acquisiiton

One of the challenge training and learning designers face is developing curriculum and strategies that are meant to advance the learners to next level of mastery in skills learned. There are a number of theories which attempt to explain how learners move from novice to expert. In this post I will summarize the most popular and most relevant models on novice-to-expert development for training and learning designers. A journey of learner, especially a novice towards becoming an expert and master is a fascinating topic and training professionals love to create their own unconfirmed theories on such a topic. This discussion always becomes interesting but ironically never gets good consensus in regards to definitions of, and even names of different stages through which a novice develops into an expert. Though there are arguments against existence of clear-cut stages, few studies confirmed that there is occurrence of level-like shift in some qualitative … Continue reading

6 Phases of Skill Acquisition in Towards Mastery: Combining Multiple Views of Dreyfus Model

Stages of skill acquisition

During my Doctorate research first thing I was looking for a scale or phases of acquisition of skills. One of the most recognized works in specifying stages of expertise was proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986). However, I came across so many different variations of the model that I thought I will compile a table. This post is an attempt to combine various perspectives into one. I view progression in skill acquisition as “phases” rather than “stages”. At this moment I will stick to word ‘stage’. as My intent here is not to critique Dreyfus’s model but to integrate summaries from various leading authors and bloggers (at least those I think were doing good job in simplifying the model and making it more useful). Dreyfus & Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition The Dreyfus model is based on the basic notion that acquisition of skill is a continuous process and skill … Continue reading

Making of An Expert: 9 Universal Abilities that Represent Expertise

9 universal abilities that represent expertise

Taking about expertise and accelerating time-to-expertise, question comes is what are the characteristics of an expert performer. I thought of providing researcher’s view on experts and what makes the expertise. Expertise typically has been viewed in terms of expert performance which means expertise in some abilities which are possessed by some and not all (Dror et al., 1993). These abilities may contain range of skills, knowledge and performance characteristics and it may vary from one domain to another.  Ericsson (1994) defines expert level performance as “Usually, if someone is performing at least two standard deviations above the mean level in the population, that individual can be said to be performing at an expert level.” Ericsson & Lehman (1996) further elaborated expertise or expert performance as consistently superior performance in tasks pertaining to the field of expertise. Klein (1998) describes that expert performance comes by virtue of expert’s ability to integrate … Continue reading

How Competency and Proficiency are Related to Performance?

Slide28

When it comes to training design and delivery, I have seen that professionals tend to use several terms interchangeably: Competence, Competency, Proficiency, Expertise and Performance. Even though these terms have different definition and scope, these are used quite interchangeably in the literature. Murphy et al. (2009) highlighted the problem of a lack of consistency in defining competence and performance. I thought in this post I add my perspective on clarifying based on some research and provide a simple relationship between these terms. a) Performance Performance is a widely used term in human resource world. The Oxford English Dictionary defines performance as ‘the action or process of performing a task or a function’. Gilbert (1996) states that there are two elements in performance: the behavior or activity and the outcome or accomplishment (as cited in National Volunteer Skill Centre, 2003, p. 6). Performance may be result of several cognitive, psychomotor tasks … Continue reading

Proficiency to Expertise: Are you an authority on one thing? (DNA of Mastery Part 5/6)

Slide2

In the last post (Part-4) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and competence, performance and then to proficiency. http://personal-resonance.com/part-iv-performance-to-proficiency-are-you-able-to-deliver-reproducible-and-consistent-results-in-every-situation/. I showed you that how reproducibility was a key factor that convert performance into proficiency. Let’s move to next milestone in this journey. Expertise: Be the Authority By Specializing with Your Expertise Going back to my example of driving he car, I wish I could say I have gained expertise in driving. But reality is that expertise does not come so easily. For some of you, proficiency or expertise may mean same thing. Expertise is a less explored area. I will use some key research reference to establish why you should target achieving expertise in your chosen field. Let me elaborate it with a research definition of ‘expertise’. Dreyfus (1986) explained that experts don’t apply rules, or uses any maxims or guidelines. He rather has intuitive grasp of situations … Continue reading

2 Rules of Converting Your Perceived Competence into Real-World Noticieable Performance

Slide20

(Originally published at Examiner.com as part-2 of the re-purposed article) This post is re-written from DNA of Mastery Part 2 and Part 3. The first part is about 5 rules to get your knowledge and skills noticed at workplace. You can review the article here:http://www.examiner.com/article/5-simple-rules-to-make-your-knowledge-an…. The key takeaway in that article was to develop a winning attitude which results in conversion of your abilities into competence. Let me take you little further in this journey to get you noticed at your workplace. In our research we found that there was just one factor which made the difference even to top performers to stay on top and to low performers to be successful and improve performance. Based on that here are the two rules of noticeable performance at workplace. 1. Get noticed by conquering your environment Ever heard this “You got the potential and I know you got the competence, but I am not sure what is holding you back … Continue reading

Performance to Proficiency: Are you able to deliver reproducible and consistent results in every situation? (DNA to Mastery Part 4/6)

Slide27

In the last posts (Part-I to Part-III) I talked about how attitude a controlling factor in converting competence into developing and demonstrating the performance in an individual. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. Proficiency: Get the Reproducible Results by Acquiring Proficiency in Skills Now while I was ‘performing’ as a driver, no one had any issues. They knew I could drive on any road. Even though we may be on untraveled roads, my fellow passenger had high level of confidence that I will pull it through. Now I was able to switch vehicles and no matter it was truck or a small electric car, my skills were equally good. It also did not matter I was driving in crowded roads of India or limitless Autobahn in Germany. This stage of reproducing your performance everywhere and in every situation is called proficiency. Let me give you one more equation. Performance + … Continue reading

5 Simple rules to make your knowledge and skills visible at workplace

(Originally published at Examiner.com) This post is summary of DNA of Mastery Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3. Have you wondered in spite of your best knowledge and skills you do not make a cut into front line leaders? Maybe along the way you started doubting your competence. And you probably started thinking that you need to go for a leadership course. Hold on for a while on your decision. You may not lack leadership. Research has proven that there are some basic factors that may be hampering your competence to get known to the world. If you have faced a struggle in proving your competence to your management or to your stakeholders, let me share with you some simple tips from research. 1. Get competitive edge by expanding your strategic knowledge When I was young, I was quite curious about driving cars several years back. I gathered quite a bit of … Continue reading

Competence to Performance: Is Your Full Competence Converting Into Performance? (DNA of Mastery Part 3/6)

Slide17

In the last post (Part-2) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and competence. I showed you that how attitude can transform abilities to competence that builds other’s confidence on you. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. ENVIRONMENT: Get Noticed By Conquering Your Environment Ever heard this “You got the potential and I know you got the competence, but I am not sure what is holding you back giving a great performance”. Does it leave you puzzled sometimes? Your competence is not yet proven and visible in the real-world. There is crucial component which makes your competence visible to world. This is called ENVIRONMENT. It could mean several things including real Job environment, closer-to-life issue or problem, real-life scenarios, changing conditions and situations you encounter around you within which you are required to work. There are many internal and external environment factor and variables which may affect your competence. External … Continue reading

Abilities to Competence – Are You Winning Other’s Confidence in You? (DNA of Mastery Part 2/6

Slide10

In the last post (Part-1) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and showed you that how integrating those two well will result into abilities that differentiate you from others. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. ATTITUDE: Be Ahead of the Race by Developing A Winning Attitude As I was ‘able’ to drive car, I still needed to exert several discretion like whether or not to overtake, whether or not to cross speed limits, whether or not to slow down to pedestrians, whether or not to run car at steady speed to maintain its systems, among several others even in control environment or simpler situations like mock-up circuit and relatively less crowded roads. As I became good I developed certain method or technique of my own. I tested my newly found methods in certain situations and that gave me confidence that I could probably handle unforeseen situations as … Continue reading

Knowledge to Abilities – Are You Differentiating Yourself from the Crowd? (DNA of Mastery Part 1/6)

Slide4

Some years back, I got into an interesting discussion with an elderly man- a kind of philosophical discussion. He commented that anyone can be intelligent but few possess wisdom. That was quite a point. From that point onwards, I have been looking at journey of self-assertion and how we view our self on the spectrum of learning. As you engage in continuous learning you keep evolving in your understanding and skill levels and you leap the new levels. The question becomes is where do you stop where you are on this spectrum. Here is some insight into this in this Part-1 of the this post which will be published in 6 parts. Do come back or subscribe this to check for subsequent parts. KNOWLEDGE: Get Competitive Edge By Expanding Your Strategic Knowledge In simple words “knowledge means what you know”. When I was young, I was quite curious about driving cars several years back. I gathered quite a bit of information about different models, … Continue reading

9 Avenues of Investments That Will Never Go Wrong: Invest in Yourself

Slide1

In one of the sessions, I asked participants, “If you have all the energy, time and money of the world, what is the single most important thing you want to invest upon?” I have been getting varied kind of replies to this question which included things like investing in property, bank balance, kids’ education, stocks, travel and hobbies, family, gift for spouse etc.  It is nothing unusual, right?The interesting fact that came out is that less than 20% participants actually indicated that they would invest on themselves!!!Why we do not consider investment on ourselves as the biggest investment? Tomorrow if you get fired from your job or you meet some unforeseen circumstances, who you think is going to stand next to you? When odds are more who you think you can depend upon blindfolded? It is ONLY YOU AND YOURSELF. Several people will stand to support you and care for … Continue reading

Zest to know yourself in absolute: A professional challenge

know_yourself_logo

In one of my research, I asked participants “tell me about the greatest struggle of your life which has never left your mind even for a second”. Participants responded with range of answers ranging from impression on others, daily livelihood to balancing work life balance.  Guess what turned out to be the biggest factor? The majority of participants responded that understanding themselves was a non-stop struggle for them which they thought they had mastered but in reality they did not. Isn’t it strange? Years after years you live your life and the only struggle that continues is a zest to find yourself, explore yourself and understand your motives, drives, motivators and knowing your true potential. In my subsequent research another factor also came in picture – “understanding others”. When ranked, we found that ‘understanding ourself’ is the biggest challenge for majority of the professionals. Every day is a new struggle for them … Continue reading

3 Ways to Show-case Your Personal Performance and How to shorten Time-to-Personal Performance?

Slide1

Image credit: http://blog.secretmillionera.ru/ How do you turn into a high performance individual? In my last post 2 things you need to know to Accelerate Personal Expertise: Specialization and ‘One Thing’ I wrote that before you can lead others, you need to identify what the one thing you are best at. The key question is that how do you become best at something? During our research we found that there were three distinct and completely different mechanisms through which professionals are able to do their best and able to shine as high performance individuals. Let me share an interesting experiment as part of the research that was performed at a hi-tech organization. A select set of employees were given a pre-defined task which they had never done before. These employees were picked for research purposes and supposedly had demonstrated similar levels of skills, experience and knowledge on similar kind of assignments as seen from … Continue reading