• Personal Resonance© is a research forum engaged in transforming findings from proven research studies on learning, training, performance and expertise into practical training solutions and practices to 'accelerate time-to-expertise' of organizations and professionals. Aggressive time-to-market drives organizations to develop complex cognitive skills of their employees at faster pace to beat their competitors. Goal of forum is to find and share the answer to that ‘speed’. The forum is trying to develop a core knowledge-base in four areas by systematically assimilating, analyzing and synthesizing the proven research studies in wide range of disciplines like cognitive sciences, neuroscience, psychology, education, learning and brain science, etc.: 1) Accelerated Workplace Expertise: Proven research-based strategies and methodologies to accelerate expertise of organization as a whole through training and learning. 2) Accelerated Professional Expertise: Science-based resonance techniques to accelerate expertise, peak performance and effectiveness of individuals. 3) Strategic Training Management: Experience-based competitive philosophies and processes to manage large-scale complex learning and knowledge operations to produce proficient workforce. 4) Competitive Instructional Design: Advanced instructional and learning design techniques to deliver higher order complex skills like problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, technical troubleshooting.

Proficiency Based Training Approach in Organizational Settings: Does it work?

Proficiency Based Training

Proficiency Based Training approach, made popular mainly by military and some schools in US, suggests that if a novice could be provided all the opportunities right within training event, time not being a factor, learning at certain rate controlled by training events, environment and exposure, he is likely to reach ‘desired proficiency’ someday. What is Proficiency Based Training? The whole idea is to make trainees achieve proficiency right during training event and removing the limit to the time. The educational theorist Carroll (1963) provided the first complete model of attaining proficiency in her “Mastery learning model”. Carroll challenged traditional educational philosophy with his model stating that ‘the learner will succeed in learning a given task to the extent that he spends the time that he needs to learn the task’ (p. 725). Carroll used certain factors like aptitude, or time needed to learn the task under ideal instruction, ability to understand instruction, … Continue reading

6 Practical Training Strategies from Sternberg’s Developing Expertise Model

s Model

Among several models for training design, the “Developing Expertise” Model by Sternberg (1999) is quite useful to define the training strategies. The main feature of this model is that it postulated that ‘expertise’ is trainable – however, required correct orchestration of the training strategies He presented a model of developing expertise have five key elements: Metacognitive skills, Learning skills, Thinking skills, Knowledge and Motivation. Fundamentally his model is based on cycling and interactions of several skills together to achieve expertise. Core philosophy is that Motivation is believed to drive metacognitive skills which in turn activate learning and thinking skills, which then provide feedback to the metacognitive skills, enabling one’s level of expertise to increase (Sternberg, 1985). The declarative and procedural knowledge acquired through the thinking skills and learning skills also contribute toward acquisition of expertise. Sternberg’s Model of Proficiency Acquisition Sternberg explains following contributing elements: 1) Metacognitive skills. Metacognitive skills … Continue reading

Making of An Expert: 9 Universal Abilities that Represent Expertise

9 universal abilities that represent expertise

Taking about expertise and accelerating time-to-expertise, question comes is what are the characteristics of an expert performer. I thought of providing researcher’s view on experts and what makes the expertise. Expertise typically has been viewed in terms of expert performance which means expertise in some abilities which are possessed by some and not all (Dror et al., 1993). These abilities may contain range of skills, knowledge and performance characteristics and it may vary from one domain to another.  Ericsson (1994) defines expert level performance as “Usually, if someone is performing at least two standard deviations above the mean level in the population, that individual can be said to be performing at an expert level.” Ericsson & Lehman (1996) further elaborated expertise or expert performance as consistently superior performance in tasks pertaining to the field of expertise. Klein (1998) describes that expert performance comes by virtue of expert’s ability to integrate … Continue reading

New Measure of Training ROI: Time-to-Expertise and Time-to-Proficiency of Employees

accelerating TTP chart

  I wrote in previous post that most of the organizations are targeting proficiency as the minimum desired level of performance of their employees. In general the time taken by an individual to acquire the skills necessary to reach to a level where his performance can be deemed as “proficient” (or exhibiting ‘desired proficiency’) is called time-to-proficiency (Pinder and Schroeder, 1987). This is generally measured either from his day of hire or from the day he takes first training course. This time usually also involves time spent on OJT and other allied activities to gain proficiency. Carpenter, Monaco, O’Mara, & Teachout (1989) appears to be first one to develop first Time-To-Proficiency model in military context which established relationship between actual performance, aptitude, experience, costs and minimum acceptable level of job proficiency for recording airmen proficiency (as cited by Faneuff et.al, 1990). It took time for the same concept to make … Continue reading

How Competency and Proficiency are Related to Performance?

Slide28

When it comes to training design and delivery, I have seen that professionals tend to use several terms interchangeably: Competence, Competency, Proficiency, Expertise and Performance. Even though these terms have different definition and scope, these are used quite interchangeably in the literature. Murphy et al. (2009) highlighted the problem of a lack of consistency in defining competence and performance. I thought in this post I add my perspective on clarifying based on some research and provide a simple relationship between these terms. a) Performance Performance is a widely used term in human resource world. The Oxford English Dictionary defines performance as ‘the action or process of performing a task or a function’. Gilbert (1996) states that there are two elements in performance: the behavior or activity and the outcome or accomplishment (as cited in National Volunteer Skill Centre, 2003, p. 6). Performance may be result of several cognitive, psychomotor tasks … Continue reading

3 Challenges in Designing Training When “Proficiency” is Your Organization’s Training Goal

Stages of Skill Acquisition

I came across this question many times: What should be the goal of organizational or corporate training? Should it target generating competence or should it go beyond competence in producing proficiency or expertise? The approaches and training strategies vary with the goals. If we look at Dreyfus’s model of Skill Acquisition (Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 1986) we have competence on one side of the scale, we have expertise on other side and proficiency level falls mid-way. Ericsson (1994) advocate that to attain expertise, roughly 10000 hours of deliberate practice. This equation has been questioned recently by several practitioners, but lets not go into that debate. Nevertheless it is understood that gaining expertise requires much longer time. Experts are characterized by highly improved mental knowledge representation, ability of chunking, efficient cognitive processing schemata and ability to recognize patterns quickly. These abilities are acquired over the time with extensive experience. Achieving expertise as … Continue reading

Accelerating Time-to-Expertise in the Accelerated Time-to-Market

Let me share a new perspective on language of ROI for the training. Over the last decade every one of us has seen tremendous changes in technology and learning across the industries. If you are in hi-tech industry, you might agree with me that organizations are trying to squeeze (or accelerate) Time-to-market of new technologies, services, products and solutions to gain competitive edge over others. This does not come without a critical business challenge. This has led to a new business challenge for training experts how to drive workforce to achieve full productivity at equally fast pace. Talking to several thought leaders in the industry; it appears to me that there is a large lag between speed with which organizations can build capability of employees and the speed of time-to-market of products / services / solutions / technologies. Hi-tech industry is at critical point with dire need to build capabilities … Continue reading

Proficiency to Expertise: Are you an authority on one thing? (DNA of Mastery Part 5/6)

Slide2

In the last post (Part-4) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and competence, performance and then to proficiency. http://personal-resonance.com/part-iv-performance-to-proficiency-are-you-able-to-deliver-reproducible-and-consistent-results-in-every-situation/. I showed you that how reproducibility was a key factor that convert performance into proficiency. Let’s move to next milestone in this journey. Expertise: Be the Authority By Specializing with Your Expertise Going back to my example of driving he car, I wish I could say I have gained expertise in driving. But reality is that expertise does not come so easily. For some of you, proficiency or expertise may mean same thing. Expertise is a less explored area. I will use some key research reference to establish why you should target achieving expertise in your chosen field. Let me elaborate it with a research definition of ‘expertise’. Dreyfus (1986) explained that experts don’t apply rules, or uses any maxims or guidelines. He rather has intuitive grasp of situations … Continue reading

2 Rules of Converting Your Perceived Competence into Real-World Noticieable Performance

Slide20

(Originally published at Examiner.com as part-2 of the re-purposed article) This post is re-written from DNA of Mastery Part 2 and Part 3. The first part is about 5 rules to get your knowledge and skills noticed at workplace. You can review the article here:http://www.examiner.com/article/5-simple-rules-to-make-your-knowledge-an…. The key takeaway in that article was to develop a winning attitude which results in conversion of your abilities into competence. Let me take you little further in this journey to get you noticed at your workplace. In our research we found that there was just one factor which made the difference even to top performers to stay on top and to low performers to be successful and improve performance. Based on that here are the two rules of noticeable performance at workplace. 1. Get noticed by conquering your environment Ever heard this “You got the potential and I know you got the competence, but I am not sure what is holding you back … Continue reading

Performance to Proficiency: Are you able to deliver reproducible and consistent results in every situation? (DNA to Mastery Part 4/6)

Slide27

In the last posts (Part-I to Part-III) I talked about how attitude a controlling factor in converting competence into developing and demonstrating the performance in an individual. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. Proficiency: Get the Reproducible Results by Acquiring Proficiency in Skills Now while I was ‘performing’ as a driver, no one had any issues. They knew I could drive on any road. Even though we may be on untraveled roads, my fellow passenger had high level of confidence that I will pull it through. Now I was able to switch vehicles and no matter it was truck or a small electric car, my skills were equally good. It also did not matter I was driving in crowded roads of India or limitless Autobahn in Germany. This stage of reproducing your performance everywhere and in every situation is called proficiency. Let me give you one more equation. Performance + … Continue reading

5 Simple rules to make your knowledge and skills visible at workplace

(Originally published at Examiner.com) This post is summary of DNA of Mastery Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3. Have you wondered in spite of your best knowledge and skills you do not make a cut into front line leaders? Maybe along the way you started doubting your competence. And you probably started thinking that you need to go for a leadership course. Hold on for a while on your decision. You may not lack leadership. Research has proven that there are some basic factors that may be hampering your competence to get known to the world. If you have faced a struggle in proving your competence to your management or to your stakeholders, let me share with you some simple tips from research. 1. Get competitive edge by expanding your strategic knowledge When I was young, I was quite curious about driving cars several years back. I gathered quite a bit of … Continue reading

Competence to Performance: Is Your Full Competence Converting Into Performance? (DNA of Mastery Part 3/6)

Slide17

In the last post (Part-2) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and competence. I showed you that how attitude can transform abilities to competence that builds other’s confidence on you. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. ENVIRONMENT: Get Noticed By Conquering Your Environment Ever heard this “You got the potential and I know you got the competence, but I am not sure what is holding you back giving a great performance”. Does it leave you puzzled sometimes? Your competence is not yet proven and visible in the real-world. There is crucial component which makes your competence visible to world. This is called ENVIRONMENT. It could mean several things including real Job environment, closer-to-life issue or problem, real-life scenarios, changing conditions and situations you encounter around you within which you are required to work. There are many internal and external environment factor and variables which may affect your competence. External … Continue reading

Abilities to Competence – Are You Winning Other’s Confidence in You? (DNA of Mastery Part 2/6

Slide10

In the last post (Part-1) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and showed you that how integrating those two well will result into abilities that differentiate you from others. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. ATTITUDE: Be Ahead of the Race by Developing A Winning Attitude As I was ‘able’ to drive car, I still needed to exert several discretion like whether or not to overtake, whether or not to cross speed limits, whether or not to slow down to pedestrians, whether or not to run car at steady speed to maintain its systems, among several others even in control environment or simpler situations like mock-up circuit and relatively less crowded roads. As I became good I developed certain method or technique of my own. I tested my newly found methods in certain situations and that gave me confidence that I could probably handle unforeseen situations as … Continue reading

Knowledge to Abilities – Are You Differentiating Yourself from the Crowd? (DNA of Mastery Part 1/6)

Slide4

Some years back, I got into an interesting discussion with an elderly man- a kind of philosophical discussion. He commented that anyone can be intelligent but few possess wisdom. That was quite a point. From that point onwards, I have been looking at journey of self-assertion and how we view our self on the spectrum of learning. As you engage in continuous learning you keep evolving in your understanding and skill levels and you leap the new levels. The question becomes is where do you stop where you are on this spectrum. Here is some insight into this in this Part-1 of the this post which will be published in 6 parts. Do come back or subscribe this to check for subsequent parts. KNOWLEDGE: Get Competitive Edge By Expanding Your Strategic Knowledge In simple words “knowledge means what you know”. When I was young, I was quite curious about driving cars several years back. I gathered quite a bit of information about different models, … Continue reading

9 Avenues of Investments That Will Never Go Wrong: Invest in Yourself

Slide1

In one of the sessions, I asked participants, “If you have all the energy, time and money of the world, what is the single most important thing you want to invest upon?” I have been getting varied kind of replies to this question which included things like investing in property, bank balance, kids’ education, stocks, travel and hobbies, family, gift for spouse etc.  It is nothing unusual, right?The interesting fact that came out is that less than 20% participants actually indicated that they would invest on themselves!!!Why we do not consider investment on ourselves as the biggest investment? Tomorrow if you get fired from your job or you meet some unforeseen circumstances, who you think is going to stand next to you? When odds are more who you think you can depend upon blindfolded? It is ONLY YOU AND YOURSELF. Several people will stand to support you and care for … Continue reading

Zest to know yourself in absolute: A professional challenge

know_yourself_logo

In one of my research, I asked participants “tell me about the greatest struggle of your life which has never left your mind even for a second”. Participants responded with range of answers ranging from impression on others, daily livelihood to balancing work life balance.  Guess what turned out to be the biggest factor? The majority of participants responded that understanding themselves was a non-stop struggle for them which they thought they had mastered but in reality they did not. Isn’t it strange? Years after years you live your life and the only struggle that continues is a zest to find yourself, explore yourself and understand your motives, drives, motivators and knowing your true potential. In my subsequent research another factor also came in picture – “understanding others”. When ranked, we found that ‘understanding ourself’ is the biggest challenge for majority of the professionals. Every day is a new struggle for them … Continue reading