• Personal Resonance© is a research forum engaged in transforming findings from proven research studies on learning, training, performance and expertise into practical training solutions and practices to 'accelerate time-to-expertise' of organizations and professionals. Aggressive time-to-market drives organizations to develop complex cognitive skills of their employees at faster pace to beat their competitors. Goal of forum is to find and share the answer to that ‘speed’. The forum is trying to develop a core knowledge-base in four areas by systematically assimilating, analyzing and synthesizing the proven research studies in wide range of disciplines like cognitive sciences, neuroscience, psychology, education, learning and brain science, etc.: 1) Accelerated Workplace Expertise: Proven research-based strategies and methodologies to accelerate expertise of organization as a whole through training and learning. 2) Accelerated Professional Expertise: Science-based resonance techniques to accelerate expertise, peak performance and effectiveness of individuals. 3) Strategic Training Management: Experience-based competitive philosophies and processes to manage large-scale complex learning and knowledge operations to produce proficient workforce. 4) Competitive Instructional Design: Advanced instructional and learning design techniques to deliver higher order complex skills like problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, technical troubleshooting.

5 Famous Expertise Development Models Explain Novice to Mastery Skill Progression

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One of the challenge training and learning designers face is developing curriculum and strategies that are meant to advance the learners to next level of mastery in skills learned. In one of my last posts I compiled different models and theories on skill acquisition. Not all model or theories support ‘mastery’ . Most of theories or models shows the journey only uptil expertise stage. In this post, I will combine stages from the angle of mastery and include only those models which support achievement of ‘mastery’ as a realistic goal. In this post I will go beyond Dreyfus and Dreyfus’s famous model and add some later research studies and contemporary models by some consultants and industry thought leaders. 5 Skill Development Models Explaining Progression Towards Mastery Here is how different models and thought leaders explains progression of a novice towards acquiring mastery in stages. Dreyfus & Dreyfus (1986, 2001, 2008) … Continue reading

12 Models of Skill Acquisition and Development: From a Novice to Expertise and Mastery

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One of the challenge training and learning designers face is developing curriculum and strategies that are meant to advance the learners to next level of mastery in skills learned. There are a number of theories which attempt to explain how learners move from novice to expert. In this post I will summarize the most popular and most relevant models on novice-to-expert development for training and learning designers. A journey of learner, especially a novice towards becoming an expert and master is a fascinating topic and training professionals love to create their own unconfirmed theories on such a topic. This discussion always becomes interesting but ironically never gets good consensus in regards to definitions of, and even names of different stages through which a novice develops into an expert. Though there are arguments against existence of clear-cut stages, few studies confirmed that there is occurrence of level-like shift in some qualitative … Continue reading

6 Phases of Skill Acquisition in Towards Mastery: Combining Multiple Views of Dreyfus Model

Stages of skill acquisition

During my Doctorate research first thing I was looking for a scale or phases of acquisition of skills. One of the most recognized works in specifying stages of expertise was proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986). However, I came across so many different variations of the model that I thought I will compile a table. This post is an attempt to combine various perspectives into one. I view progression in skill acquisition as “phases” rather than “stages”. At this moment I will stick to word ‘stage’. as My intent here is not to critique Dreyfus’s model but to integrate summaries from various leading authors and bloggers (at least those I think were doing good job in simplifying the model and making it more useful). Dreyfus & Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition The Dreyfus model is based on the basic notion that acquisition of skill is a continuous process and skill … Continue reading

Cognitive Training Techniques to Build and Accelerate Expertise: Interview with Dr. Ruth C. Clark

Training Techniques to Accelerate and Build Expertise

A while ago I had conversation with Dr. Ruth Clark exploring her views about certain training strategies to building expertise in problem solving skills and potentially accelerate it. She emphasized using worked examples and Scenario-based e-Learning training techniques as key to build expertise. Here is an excerpt from the conversation. About Dr. Ruth Clark: A recognized specialist in instructional design and technical training, Dr. Clark is author of Scenario-based E-Learning and newly released second edition of Evidence-based Training, two books that deal with evidence-based instructional strategies to accelerate expertise. She is also author of Building Expertise, a book with thorough account of research based cognitive training strategies to improve performance. For over 25 years Ruth Clark has helped workforce learning practitioners apply evidence-based practice guidelines based on valid research. Dr. Clark offers consulting by previewing your e-learning products or goals and evaluating your courses or offering customized design-development consultation. Ruth currently offers … Continue reading

9 Training Models to Accelerate to High Proficiency by Uplifting Bars in Formal Training

How Re-structured Training Interventions can accelerate the time to proficiency?

A while ago I presented the paper on “Rethinking Professional Skill Development: Accelerating Time-to-Expertise of Employees” at Conference for Human Development in Asia, Japan. In that paper, I presented the three potential approaches through which most organizations are trying to accelerate proficiency acquisition of their employees. 3 Approaches from Research How Organizations Build and Accelerate Expertise  1) Accelerating Acquisition of Expertise by Accelerating OJT I presented the first approach of “Accelerating Acquisition of Expertise by Accelerating OJT” in my previous blog post “Designing and Accelerating On-the-Job Training (OJT) in Organizational Settings“. In that post I made some points that there has to be some methods to increase the slope of post-training OJT curve which can potentially help organizations to attain desired proficiency in their employees in shorter time. However, I do not know any proven training methods to re-design accelerated post-training OJT curve. I am in search of those methods … Continue reading

9 Famous Training Models Supporting Development and Speed up of Expertise

Acquiring High Proficiency and Expertise Through Training

Several researchers established the possibility to produce professionals at higher level of proficiency using some special training strategies. But that’s stay as possibility to large extent. There is lack of any comprehensive mechanism of accelerating the proficiency either through training or otherwise which instructional designer,s training strategists or training experts could use off-the-shelf and apply in organizational context. As stated by Hoffman, Andrews & Feltovich (2012), “Empirical fact about expertise (i.e., that it takes a long time) sets the stage for an effort at demonstrating the acceleration of the achievement of proficiency.” (p. 9). Some famous models do attempt to provide “some” insight into how training can be used to build certain level of proficiency of employees and to accelerate it. I thought I summarize various models from the angle of how expertise development and acceleration of expertise. Bloom’s Mastery Learning Model (1968) The educational theorist Carroll (1963) provided the first complete … Continue reading

Does return on On-the-Job Training (OJT) outweigh the costs in Building Expertise?

On-the-Job Training to Build Expertise

I wrote in my other post on how there is need to find strategies to accelerate the OJT. Designing and Accelerating On-the-Job Training (OJT) in Organizational Settings. I will address the strategies to accelerating building expertise through OJT in subsequent posts. Here I will explore some aspects of OJT whether it is a cost or it is tool for return on investment on training. Let’s start from the beginning. Need for OJT at Workplace Typically a novice’s journey to acquiring proficiency starts with some sort of formal and hopefully systematic training event to learn the skills needed at the job. The training helps the novice to acquire the skills and reach to certain level of skill proficiency at the time of exit from the training course. Traditionally training prepares a novice only to reach to a level called “advanced beginner” as defined by Dreyfus’s model (Clark, 2008). What a novice … Continue reading

Designing and Accelerating On-the-Job Training (OJT) in Organizational Settings

Accelerating OJT

Systematic-OJT (Jacobs, 2003) is one of the popular methods to build experience and proficiency of novice in any profession. NOTE: For this blog, read Post-Training OJT (on-the-job training) to mean as Post-Training On-the-Job Experience  (OJE) which an individual typically gets on the job either through structured or unstructured assignments while doing his job.  Why OJT? Let’s start from the beginning. Typically a novice’s journey to acquire proficiency starts with some sort of formal and hopefully systematic training event to learn the skills needed at his job. The training helps the novice to acquire the skills and reach to certain level of skill proficiency at the time of exit from the training event. Traditionally training prepares a novice only to reach to a level called “advanced beginner” as defined by Dreyfus’s model (Clark, 2008). What a novice lacks at the end of the formal training program is necessary experience and time … Continue reading

Proficiency Based Training Approach in Organizational Settings: Does it work?

Proficiency Based Training

Proficiency Based Training approach, made popular mainly by military and some schools in US, suggests that if a novice could be provided all the opportunities right within training event, time not being a factor, learning at certain rate controlled by training events, environment and exposure, he is likely to reach ‘desired proficiency’ someday. What is Proficiency Based Training? The whole idea is to make trainees achieve proficiency right during training event and removing the limit to the time. The educational theorist Carroll (1963) provided the first complete model of attaining proficiency in her “Mastery learning model”. Carroll challenged traditional educational philosophy with his model stating that ‘the learner will succeed in learning a given task to the extent that he spends the time that he needs to learn the task’ (p. 725). Carroll used certain factors like aptitude, or time needed to learn the task under ideal instruction, ability to understand instruction, … Continue reading

6 Practical Training Strategies from Sternberg’s Developing Expertise Model

s Model

Among several models for training design, the “Developing Expertise” Model by Sternberg (1999) is quite useful to define the training strategies. The main feature of this model is that it postulated that ‘expertise’ is trainable – however, required correct orchestration of the training strategies He presented a model of developing expertise have five key elements: Metacognitive skills, Learning skills, Thinking skills, Knowledge and Motivation. Fundamentally his model is based on cycling and interactions of several skills together to achieve expertise. Core philosophy is that Motivation is believed to drive metacognitive skills which in turn activate learning and thinking skills, which then provide feedback to the metacognitive skills, enabling one’s level of expertise to increase (Sternberg, 1985). The declarative and procedural knowledge acquired through the thinking skills and learning skills also contribute toward acquisition of expertise. Sternberg’s Model of Proficiency Acquisition Sternberg explains following contributing elements: 1) Metacognitive skills. Metacognitive skills … Continue reading

Making of An Expert: 9 Universal Abilities that Represent Expertise

9 universal abilities that represent expertise

Taking about expertise and accelerating time-to-expertise, question comes is what are the characteristics of an expert performer. I thought of providing researcher’s view on experts and what makes the expertise. Expertise typically has been viewed in terms of expert performance which means expertise in some abilities which are possessed by some and not all (Dror et al., 1993). These abilities may contain range of skills, knowledge and performance characteristics and it may vary from one domain to another.  Ericsson (1994) defines expert level performance as “Usually, if someone is performing at least two standard deviations above the mean level in the population, that individual can be said to be performing at an expert level.” Ericsson & Lehman (1996) further elaborated expertise or expert performance as consistently superior performance in tasks pertaining to the field of expertise. Klein (1998) describes that expert performance comes by virtue of expert’s ability to integrate … Continue reading

New Measure of Training ROI: Time-to-Expertise and Time-to-Proficiency of Employees

accelerating TTP chart

  I wrote in previous post that most of the organizations are targeting proficiency as the minimum desired level of performance of their employees. In general the time taken by an individual to acquire the skills necessary to reach to a level where his performance can be deemed as “proficient” (or exhibiting ‘desired proficiency’) is called time-to-proficiency (Pinder and Schroeder, 1987). This is generally measured either from his day of hire or from the day he takes first training course. This time usually also involves time spent on OJT and other allied activities to gain proficiency. Carpenter, Monaco, O’Mara, & Teachout (1989) appears to be first one to develop first Time-To-Proficiency model in military context which established relationship between actual performance, aptitude, experience, costs and minimum acceptable level of job proficiency for recording airmen proficiency (as cited by Faneuff et.al, 1990). It took time for the same concept to make … Continue reading

Accelerating Time-to-Expertise in the Accelerated Time-to-Market

Let me share a new perspective on language of ROI for the training. Over the last decade every one of us has seen tremendous changes in technology and learning across the industries. If you are in hi-tech industry, you might agree with me that organizations are trying to squeeze (or accelerate) Time-to-market of new technologies, services, products and solutions to gain competitive edge over others. This does not come without a critical business challenge. This has led to a new business challenge for training experts how to drive workforce to achieve full productivity at equally fast pace. Talking to several thought leaders in the industry; it appears to me that there is a large lag between speed with which organizations can build capability of employees and the speed of time-to-market of products / services / solutions / technologies. Hi-tech industry is at critical point with dire need to build capabilities … Continue reading

Proficiency to Expertise: Are you an authority on one thing? (DNA of Mastery Part 5/6)

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In the last post (Part-4) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and competence, performance and then to proficiency. http://personal-resonance.com/part-iv-performance-to-proficiency-are-you-able-to-deliver-reproducible-and-consistent-results-in-every-situation/. I showed you that how reproducibility was a key factor that convert performance into proficiency. Let’s move to next milestone in this journey. Expertise: Be the Authority By Specializing with Your Expertise Going back to my example of driving he car, I wish I could say I have gained expertise in driving. But reality is that expertise does not come so easily. For some of you, proficiency or expertise may mean same thing. Expertise is a less explored area. I will use some key research reference to establish why you should target achieving expertise in your chosen field. Let me elaborate it with a research definition of ‘expertise’. Dreyfus (1986) explained that experts don’t apply rules, or uses any maxims or guidelines. He rather has intuitive grasp of situations … Continue reading

2 Rules of Converting Your Perceived Competence into Real-World Noticieable Performance

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(Originally published at Examiner.com as part-2 of the re-purposed article) This post is re-written from DNA of Mastery Part 2 and Part 3. The first part is about 5 rules to get your knowledge and skills noticed at workplace. You can review the article here:http://www.examiner.com/article/5-simple-rules-to-make-your-knowledge-an…. The key takeaway in that article was to develop a winning attitude which results in conversion of your abilities into competence. Let me take you little further in this journey to get you noticed at your workplace. In our research we found that there was just one factor which made the difference even to top performers to stay on top and to low performers to be successful and improve performance. Based on that here are the two rules of noticeable performance at workplace. 1. Get noticed by conquering your environment Ever heard this “You got the potential and I know you got the competence, but I am not sure what is holding you back … Continue reading

Performance to Proficiency: Are you able to deliver reproducible and consistent results in every situation? (DNA to Mastery Part 4/6)

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In the last posts (Part-I to Part-III) I talked about how attitude a controlling factor in converting competence into developing and demonstrating the performance in an individual. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. Proficiency: Get the Reproducible Results by Acquiring Proficiency in Skills Now while I was ‘performing’ as a driver, no one had any issues. They knew I could drive on any road. Even though we may be on untraveled roads, my fellow passenger had high level of confidence that I will pull it through. Now I was able to switch vehicles and no matter it was truck or a small electric car, my skills were equally good. It also did not matter I was driving in crowded roads of India or limitless Autobahn in Germany. This stage of reproducing your performance everywhere and in every situation is called proficiency. Let me give you one more equation. Performance + … Continue reading

Competence to Performance: Is Your Full Competence Converting Into Performance? (DNA of Mastery Part 3/6)

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In the last post (Part-2) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and competence. I showed you that how attitude can transform abilities to competence that builds other’s confidence on you. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. ENVIRONMENT: Get Noticed By Conquering Your Environment Ever heard this “You got the potential and I know you got the competence, but I am not sure what is holding you back giving a great performance”. Does it leave you puzzled sometimes? Your competence is not yet proven and visible in the real-world. There is crucial component which makes your competence visible to world. This is called ENVIRONMENT. It could mean several things including real Job environment, closer-to-life issue or problem, real-life scenarios, changing conditions and situations you encounter around you within which you are required to work. There are many internal and external environment factor and variables which may affect your competence. External … Continue reading

Abilities to Competence – Are You Winning Other’s Confidence in You? (DNA of Mastery Part 2/6

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In the last post (Part-1) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and showed you that how integrating those two well will result into abilities that differentiate you from others. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. ATTITUDE: Be Ahead of the Race by Developing A Winning Attitude As I was ‘able’ to drive car, I still needed to exert several discretion like whether or not to overtake, whether or not to cross speed limits, whether or not to slow down to pedestrians, whether or not to run car at steady speed to maintain its systems, among several others even in control environment or simpler situations like mock-up circuit and relatively less crowded roads. As I became good I developed certain method or technique of my own. I tested my newly found methods in certain situations and that gave me confidence that I could probably handle unforeseen situations as … Continue reading