• Personal Resonance© is a research forum engaged in transforming findings from proven research studies on learning, training, performance and expertise into practical training solutions and practices to 'accelerate time-to-expertise' of organizations and professionals. Aggressive time-to-market drives organizations to develop complex cognitive skills of their employees at faster pace to beat their competitors. Goal of forum is to find and share the answer to that ‘speed’. The forum is trying to develop a core knowledge-base in four areas by systematically assimilating, analyzing and synthesizing the proven research studies in wide range of disciplines like cognitive sciences, neuroscience, psychology, education, learning and brain science, etc.: 1) Accelerated Workplace Expertise: Proven research-based strategies and methodologies to accelerate expertise of organization as a whole through training and learning. 2) Accelerated Professional Expertise: Science-based resonance techniques to accelerate expertise, peak performance and effectiveness of individuals. 3) Strategic Training Management: Experience-based competitive philosophies and processes to manage large-scale complex learning and knowledge operations to produce proficient workforce. 4) Competitive Instructional Design: Advanced instructional and learning design techniques to deliver higher order complex skills like problem solving, critical thinking, decision making, technical troubleshooting.

5 Famous Expertise Development Models Explain Novice to Mastery Skill Progression

personal-mastery

One of the challenge training and learning designers face is developing curriculum and strategies that are meant to advance the learners to next level of mastery in skills learned. In one of my last posts I compiled different models and theories on skill acquisition. Not all model or theories support ‘mastery’ . Most of theories or models shows the journey only uptil expertise stage. In this post, I will combine stages from the angle of mastery and include only those models which support achievement of ‘mastery’ as a realistic goal. In this post I will go beyond Dreyfus and Dreyfus’s famous model and add some later research studies and contemporary models by some consultants and industry thought leaders. 5 Skill Development Models Explaining Progression Towards Mastery Here is how different models and thought leaders explains progression of a novice towards acquiring mastery in stages. Dreyfus & Dreyfus (1986, 2001, 2008) … Continue reading

Developing Skill Acquisition Training Based on Unconscious Competence Theory

Reflective competence

How an individual acquire competence or expertise kept me fascinated for years. While developing my doctorate literature review, I started out with some research on models of expertise / competence development.  Though most of the body of knowledge out there is focused on stages of development as opposed to techniques of development, I thought it may make sense to talk about the oldest and most commonly used model of stages of competence development which training and non training professionals both can relate to. When I was a kid I got my new bicycle. Not waiting for next day I started riding it hardly worrying about whether or not I knew how to ride. Not knowing when to paddle and when to steer I fell a couple of time. Those were enough to tell me that I didn’t know how to ride it. As I took help and coaching for others … Continue reading

12 Models of Skill Acquisition and Development: From a Novice to Expertise and Mastery

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One of the challenge training and learning designers face is developing curriculum and strategies that are meant to advance the learners to next level of mastery in skills learned. There are a number of theories which attempt to explain how learners move from novice to expert. In this post I will summarize the most popular and most relevant models on novice-to-expert development for training and learning designers. A journey of learner, especially a novice towards becoming an expert and master is a fascinating topic and training professionals love to create their own unconfirmed theories on such a topic. This discussion always becomes interesting but ironically never gets good consensus in regards to definitions of, and even names of different stages through which a novice develops into an expert. Though there are arguments against existence of clear-cut stages, few studies confirmed that there is occurrence of level-like shift in some qualitative … Continue reading

6 Phases of Skill Acquisition in Towards Mastery: Combining Multiple Views of Dreyfus Model

Stages of skill acquisition

During my Doctorate research first thing I was looking for a scale or phases of acquisition of skills. One of the most recognized works in specifying stages of expertise was proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986). However, I came across so many different variations of the model that I thought I will compile a table. This post is an attempt to combine various perspectives into one. I view progression in skill acquisition as “phases” rather than “stages”. At this moment I will stick to word ‘stage’. as My intent here is not to critique Dreyfus’s model but to integrate summaries from various leading authors and bloggers (at least those I think were doing good job in simplifying the model and making it more useful). Dreyfus & Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition The Dreyfus model is based on the basic notion that acquisition of skill is a continuous process and skill … Continue reading

Proficiency to Expertise: Are you an authority on one thing? (DNA of Mastery Part 5/6)

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In the last post (Part-4) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and competence, performance and then to proficiency. http://personal-resonance.com/part-iv-performance-to-proficiency-are-you-able-to-deliver-reproducible-and-consistent-results-in-every-situation/. I showed you that how reproducibility was a key factor that convert performance into proficiency. Let’s move to next milestone in this journey. Expertise: Be the Authority By Specializing with Your Expertise Going back to my example of driving he car, I wish I could say I have gained expertise in driving. But reality is that expertise does not come so easily. For some of you, proficiency or expertise may mean same thing. Expertise is a less explored area. I will use some key research reference to establish why you should target achieving expertise in your chosen field. Let me elaborate it with a research definition of ‘expertise’. Dreyfus (1986) explained that experts don’t apply rules, or uses any maxims or guidelines. He rather has intuitive grasp of situations … Continue reading

2 Rules of Converting Your Perceived Competence into Real-World Noticieable Performance

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(Originally published at Examiner.com as part-2 of the re-purposed article) This post is re-written from DNA of Mastery Part 2 and Part 3. The first part is about 5 rules to get your knowledge and skills noticed at workplace. You can review the article here:http://www.examiner.com/article/5-simple-rules-to-make-your-knowledge-an…. The key takeaway in that article was to develop a winning attitude which results in conversion of your abilities into competence. Let me take you little further in this journey to get you noticed at your workplace. In our research we found that there was just one factor which made the difference even to top performers to stay on top and to low performers to be successful and improve performance. Based on that here are the two rules of noticeable performance at workplace. 1. Get noticed by conquering your environment Ever heard this “You got the potential and I know you got the competence, but I am not sure what is holding you back … Continue reading

Performance to Proficiency: Are you able to deliver reproducible and consistent results in every situation? (DNA to Mastery Part 4/6)

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In the last posts (Part-I to Part-III) I talked about how attitude a controlling factor in converting competence into developing and demonstrating the performance in an individual. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. Proficiency: Get the Reproducible Results by Acquiring Proficiency in Skills Now while I was ‘performing’ as a driver, no one had any issues. They knew I could drive on any road. Even though we may be on untraveled roads, my fellow passenger had high level of confidence that I will pull it through. Now I was able to switch vehicles and no matter it was truck or a small electric car, my skills were equally good. It also did not matter I was driving in crowded roads of India or limitless Autobahn in Germany. This stage of reproducing your performance everywhere and in every situation is called proficiency. Let me give you one more equation. Performance + … Continue reading

5 Simple rules to make your knowledge and skills visible at workplace

(Originally published at Examiner.com) This post is summary of DNA of Mastery Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3. Have you wondered in spite of your best knowledge and skills you do not make a cut into front line leaders? Maybe along the way you started doubting your competence. And you probably started thinking that you need to go for a leadership course. Hold on for a while on your decision. You may not lack leadership. Research has proven that there are some basic factors that may be hampering your competence to get known to the world. If you have faced a struggle in proving your competence to your management or to your stakeholders, let me share with you some simple tips from research. 1. Get competitive edge by expanding your strategic knowledge When I was young, I was quite curious about driving cars several years back. I gathered quite a bit of … Continue reading

Competence to Performance: Is Your Full Competence Converting Into Performance? (DNA of Mastery Part 3/6)

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In the last post (Part-2) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and competence. I showed you that how attitude can transform abilities to competence that builds other’s confidence on you. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. ENVIRONMENT: Get Noticed By Conquering Your Environment Ever heard this “You got the potential and I know you got the competence, but I am not sure what is holding you back giving a great performance”. Does it leave you puzzled sometimes? Your competence is not yet proven and visible in the real-world. There is crucial component which makes your competence visible to world. This is called ENVIRONMENT. It could mean several things including real Job environment, closer-to-life issue or problem, real-life scenarios, changing conditions and situations you encounter around you within which you are required to work. There are many internal and external environment factor and variables which may affect your competence. External … Continue reading

Abilities to Competence – Are You Winning Other’s Confidence in You? (DNA of Mastery Part 2/6

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In the last post (Part-1) I started journey from knowledge, moved onto skills and showed you that how integrating those two well will result into abilities that differentiate you from others. Lets move to next milestone in this journey. ATTITUDE: Be Ahead of the Race by Developing A Winning Attitude As I was ‘able’ to drive car, I still needed to exert several discretion like whether or not to overtake, whether or not to cross speed limits, whether or not to slow down to pedestrians, whether or not to run car at steady speed to maintain its systems, among several others even in control environment or simpler situations like mock-up circuit and relatively less crowded roads. As I became good I developed certain method or technique of my own. I tested my newly found methods in certain situations and that gave me confidence that I could probably handle unforeseen situations as … Continue reading

Knowledge to Abilities – Are You Differentiating Yourself from the Crowd? (DNA of Mastery Part 1/6)

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Some years back, I got into an interesting discussion with an elderly man- a kind of philosophical discussion. He commented that anyone can be intelligent but few possess wisdom. That was quite a point. From that point onwards, I have been looking at journey of self-assertion and how we view our self on the spectrum of learning. As you engage in continuous learning you keep evolving in your understanding and skill levels and you leap the new levels. The question becomes is where do you stop where you are on this spectrum. Here is some insight into this in this Part-1 of the this post which will be published in 6 parts. Do come back or subscribe this to check for subsequent parts. KNOWLEDGE: Get Competitive Edge By Expanding Your Strategic Knowledge In simple words “knowledge means what you know”. When I was young, I was quite curious about driving cars several years back. I gathered quite a bit of information about different models, … Continue reading